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Ziziphus spina-christi, known as the Christ's thorn jujube, is an evergreen tree or plant native to northern and tropical Africa, Southern and Western Asia. It is native to the Levant, East Africa, Mesopotamia and some tropical countries. Fruit and leaves from the tree were used in preparing ancient Egyptian foods and cultural practices.
In the Levant and wider Middle East it is called sidr (associated with the lote tree of the Quran) and is common in the Jordan Valley and around Jerusalem, as well as in the Hajar Mountains of the Sultanate of Oman. There were some folklore traditions that said the trees were protected by benevolent spirits or dead saints. By some traditions, it was the tree from which Jesus' crown of thorns was made. Matthew George Easton argues that Z. spina-christi is too brittle to be bent into a crown, and suggests another local plant, Ziziphus lotus.
The oldest known Z. spina-christi is located in Ir Ovot, in the south of Israel. It is estimated to be between 1500 and 2000 years old. It is believed locally to be the very tree from which Jesus' crown of thorns was made. It is the national tree of Qatar and the symbol of the central Arava.
Ziziphus jujuba Dongzao is a slow growing, multi-stemmed fruit shrub/small tree from the Far-East. It has gooseberry-sized, edible fruits (taste between an apple and a pineapple) that mature from green to brown in the Autumn. The fruits can be eaten raw, cooked or in confectionary. Tiny yellow flowers develop in the spring. The Chinese Date \"Dong\" is drought tolerant, not fussy to soil conditions and is suitable for pot growing.
Ziziphus Spina Christi is Evergreen tree with an irregular rounded crown. The trunk is short with rough, gray-brown bark. Leaves are small, alternate, and ovate to oval, with a rounded apex, dark, shiny green, with stipular spines. Flowers are small, numerous, arranged in clusters, white. The fruit is a globose drupe, fleshy, brown when ripe, edible.
Ziziphus trees are of economic importance due to their aggregated value (source of fruits and timber) and are the most important melliferous plants in the Arabian Peninsula. Interaction between honeybees and Ziziphus nummularia was investigated by assessing foraging, flower phenology, nectar secretion, and honey potential. It is demonstrate that both the native Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner and the exotic Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann foraged on Z. nummularia flowers. Bee foraging for nectar and pollen was low (2 0.7 workers/200 flowers/3 min) during early morning and increased to a peak in the afternoon (100 15 workers/200 flowers/3 min). Remarkable foraging activity was recorded during high temperature (35C) and low humidity (20%) conditions. Foraging for nectar collection was more distinct than that for pollen. The flowering of Z. nummularia was gradual, and was characterized by some flowers that opened and secreted nectar early before sunrise, whereas other flowers remained opened until sunrise. The flowers lasted 2 days, with 83% of nectar secreted in the first day. The peak of nectar secretion was recorded at noon under hot and dry conditions. The lowest amount of nectar was secreted during sunrise under mild temperature (24C) and humidity (31%) conditions. Under optimum conditions, it is assumed that the average sugar mass was 0.321 0.03 mg TSS/flower, while the total sugar mass was 27.65 11 g/tree. The average honey production potential of tested Z. nummularia was approximately 2.998 kg/tree and 749.475 kg/ha in the main flowering season.
Perfect for growing in arid areas, the fast-growing evergreen Indian Jujube rocks drought-tolerant, fire-resistant qualities and vigorous re-sprouting behaviors. You can prune it as a shrub or let it grow to a full sized tree reaching up to 40 ft. tall.
Ziziphus Mill. (Rhamnaceae) is comprised of about 170 species that are mainly distributed in tropical to subtropical regions, with few in the temperate zone. Several Ziziphus fruit tree species are important energy, nutrient, and medicinal resources for human populations, particularly for those living in rural regions. To date, limited genomic information is available for this genus. Here, we assembled the complete chloroplast genomes of four best known Ziziphus species, i.e., Ziziphus jujuba, Ziziphus acidojujuba, Ziziphus mauritiana, and Ziziphus spina-christi, based on the Illumina Paired-end sequencing method. The chloroplast genomes of the four Ziziphus species are all very similar to one another, and exhibit structural, gene content, and order characteristics that are similar to other flowering plants. The entire chloroplast genome encodes 113 predicted unique genes (85 protein-coding genes, 8 rRNA, and 37 tRNA), 17 of which are duplicated in the inverted repeat regions. Rich single sequence repeats loci (217) were detected in Z. jujuba and 106 SSR loci, composed of A/T, displayed polymorphism across the four species by comparative genomic analysis. We found only four genes under positive selection between Z. jujuba and Z. acidojujuba, and two genes for Z. mauritiana vs. Z. spina-christi, respectively, while half of the 78 protein-coding genes experienced positive selection between the two groups. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Ziziphus (Rhamnaceae) was sister to Elaeagnaceae, and the four species of Ziziphus were clustered into two groups (Z. jujuba and Z. acidojujuba, Z. mauritiana and Z. spina-christi). Our results provide genomic resources for intrageneric classifications of Ziziphus, and valuable genetic markers for investigating the population genetics and biogeography of closely related Ziziphus species.
Ziziphus trees and shrubs inhabit arid environments on every continent due to their versatility in being able to adapt to drought stress. They play an important role in the conservation of soil, with their strong root system which stabilizes the soil and protects it from erosion. The leaves provide fodder for livestock, the hard wood is used for turning, making agricultural implements, fuel and high quality charcoal. In many regions, Ziziphus is grown as a hedge, with its spines creating effective live-fencing, and with its highly nutritious fruits providing a valuable source of energy, vitamins and also income when sold on local markets. In addition, extracts from fruits, seeds, leaves, roots and bark of Ziziphus trees are used in many traditional medicines to alleviate the effects of insomnia, skin diseases, inflammatory conditions and fever. For these reasons, Ziziphus trees have an important role to play in the integrated economy of the arid lands.
Common jujube is a deciduous tree or large shrub that is native from southeastern Europe to China growing 15 to 30 feet tall with a rounded or vase form. The branches typically have thorns and can be drooping in appearance. The fruit is edible and has been used in China for many years but is just becoming known in this country. The fruits mature from green with an apple-like texture and taste to a brownish-purple wrinkled fruit that is date-like. It can be eaten raw, dried or cooked. Fruit set may not occur in its northernmost zone due to a too-short growing season.
This tree prefers warm and somewhat dry climates and is very tolerant of alkaline soils. It will grow in full sun to partial shade and prefers well-drained but moist soils. It will tolerate poor soils and drought. Use in an edible garden, Asian garden or naturalized setting.
It is widely used as rootstock for grafting the cultural variety Ziziphus jujube. The use of a seedling as a rootstock for grafting is more advantageous than the use of an in-vitro (vegetatively) propagated rootstock, because the seedling has better adaptability to habitat conditions, longer lifespan and better vitality. It adapts better to water scarcity, can use the supplied nutrients better, the root system is much better anchored compared to in-vitro propagated rootstocks, and the tree does not need any support in adulthood, even in a wind stand.
This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered \"holy\" by Muslims (all the individuals of the species are sanctified by religion) in addition to its status as \"sacred tree \" (particular trees which are venerated due to historical or magical events related to them, regardless of their botanical identity) in the Middle East. It has also a special status as \"blessed tree\" among the Druze.
Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. [Rhamnaceae] is a tropical evergreen tree of Sudanese origin. It grows in Israel in all valleys and lowlands, and usually is confined to low elevations below a.s.l. 500 m .
The tree and its parts appear to have been in use in Pharaonic industry (carpentry), diet, and in medicine. The fruits were sometimes made into bread, which may also have been used for dressings when warm. Egyptian peasants made similar bread as late as the beginning of the 20 th century .
The tree is rare in the vicinity of Jerusalem (A. Shmida, personal communication 10 May 2004). But Henry Baker Tristram wrote that he saw a tree in the Kidron valley, outside the city, albeit in the form of a small bush . Tristram gave both the Arabic and the scientific name; so presumably, he was closely familiar with the species. The debate over the identity of the \"crown of thorns\" in the New Testament is long-lived, and various plants have been suggested as candidates [6, 7, 19].
Farooqi, in his book \"Plants of the Qur'an\" discusses at length the different names of the Qur'an's lotus tree: he suggests Z. spina-christi as an option, but on the other hand Z. lotus and Z. spina-christi are wild plants in Arabia. Another possibility he mentions is the Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani L.), which is also called \"sidr in Arabic. Farooqi concludes that the lotus tree of the Quran was indeed the Lebanon cedar, and the historical misunderstanding has perpetuated the mistaken name until the present day . 59ce067264